IEC/BCC District Planning Guidelines

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PART B
  1. The key reasons leading to slip backs after ODF
  2. ODF life cycle and sustainable sanitation
  3. Phase 1 approaches for the ODF District
  4. Phase 2 approaches for the ODF District
  5. Four key IEC/BCC interventions for sustained sanitation
    • MASS/DIGITAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN
    • SOCIAL AND COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION
    • ENTERTAINMENT EDUCATION
    • INTER PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  6. Monitoring and Evaluation
  7. Bottlenecks and solutions

DISTRICT WHICH IS ON THE VERGE OF ODF/ DECLARED ODF

  • Challenges in maintaining ODF status
  • Key approaches that would help maintain ODF/sustainable sanitation
  • The key reasons leading to
    slip backs after ODF
  • ODF life cycle and
    sustainable sanitation
  • Phase 1 approaches for
    the ODF District
  • Phase 2 approaches for
    the ODF District
  • Four key IEC/BCC interventions
    for sustained sanitation
  • Monitoring
    and Evaluation
  • Bottlenecks
    and solutions

THE KEY REASON LEADING TO SLIP BACKS AFTER ATTAINING ODF

Various Studies and assessments conducted by private independent agencies and government institutions point out a large number of factors that have led to slip backs. These have primarily been identified as :

  • Haste in achieving ODF by focusing on construction of toilets using pressure tactics without convincing the community.
  • Disregard for social norms concerning sanitation practices prevalent in the region and not addressing the concerns of the local population.
  • Technological issues like faulty construction, crammed space inside toilets, faulty pit construction leading to fill ups and disuse.
  • Child feces being considered as unharmful and being dispersed in the open.
  • ODF campaign being considered as a one-time activity with no emphasis on follow up interventions once ODF status has been achieved.
  • Lack of public toilets and community sanitary complexes to address inward migration and increased influx of migrant population.

ODF LIFE CYCLE AND SUSTAINABLE SANITATION

ODF Life Cycle

It is widely accepted that the ODF adaptation process has a life cycle of nine months, which is very important for the district to attain sustainable sanitation. During these nine months, the district machinery needs to constantly engage with the villages and GP for ensuring usage of toilets and in ushering behaviour change.

But this nine month life cycle may vary from district to district depending on the socio–economic indicators prevalent there. In many cases, the District Administration will need to prolong the lifecycle for attaining ODF in a phased manner.

Two phased intervention for sustainable ODF district

For all practical purposes, the Post ODF intervention can be segregated as:

  • Post ODF Intervention ( Phase 1 )
  • Post ODF Intervention ( Phase 2 )
The SBM clearly emphasise that the states need to carry out at least two verifications before they declare the district ODF:

The first verification should take place within three months.

The second verification should be done after six months of the first verification.

The SBM advocates for constant engagement with the communities during this time, which is a minimum of nine months after declaration of ODF district and proper monitoring and evaluation of the ODF status.

PHASE 1 APPROACH FOR ODF DISTRICT

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The Post ODF Phase 1 period can be described as the first phase of activities planned during the nine months life cycle.

During this phase, all existing interventions like sensitisation activities, monitoring activities and discussions around sanitation should continue in the GPs/ district.

Key Actions Under Phase 1
  • The district should do a situational analysis and identify vulnerable communities/ pockets/ areas where slip backs could happen and draw out an action plan to target them.
  • The District Administration should regularly monitor the cleanliness and usage of community toilets that have been built in the district and build more if necessary to target migrant population.
  • On achievement of ODF, a ‘Walk of Pride’ is organised by most of the villages. This must be made a regular feature on a monthly basis.
  • The District Administration should continue to engage the Nigrani Committees on a regular basis for M&E.
  • The focus on schools and Anganwadis should continue. The use and maintenance of school and anganwadi toilets should be a priority.
  • A sense of pride has to be created in the GP/District by putting up welcome boards announcing the ODF status.
  • The Interpersonal communication interventions, digital media and entertainment education interventions should continue to bring about the desired behavior change in the community.
  • The Manpower created for IEC activities should continue to be actively engaged in their activities.
  • The focus should gradually shift to Solid and Liquid Waste Management Initiatives. ( collection, segregation and disposal of waste at the GP/ village level ) 1
  • The District Administration should also concentrate on providing water supply connections and promoting water conservation programmes like rainwater harvesting, etc.

PHASE 2 APPROACH FOR ODF DISTRICT

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The Phase 2 approach should be introduced after the district has successfully completed the two major verification processes mandated under the SBM ODF verification process. This is also equally important as the first phase for ensuring continued sanitation practices in the district.

Under Phase 2, the emphasis would shift from core sanitation to indirect sanitation practices like waste management, water conservation, health, nutrition, education and overall cleanliness which can have an impact on sustainable sanitation in the long run.

Key Actions Under Phase 2
  • The day the district is declared as a completed ODF district can be celebrated as e.g. Freedom Day and the week that falls in the day should be observed as sanitation week with various programmes to create awareness on sanitation.
  • The Nigrani Committees should continue to operate on a weekly basis
  • The week of October 2nd should also be celebrated as Sanitation Week with cleanliness drives and various IEC activities
  • A ‘walk of pride’ to mark the ODF status of the district should be held every month.
  • The Government should initiate a legislation on toilet construction to ensure that every new construction of individual households, offices, institutions, and hotels have access to toilets.
  • Sanitation should continue to be a priority in schools with active engagement of teachers and children.
  • There should be more focus on water supply schemes. The emphasis should be to provide access to piped water supply schemes in every ODF district.
  • The administration should keep water bodies, like ponds, lakes and riverbeds clean.
  • Places used for Open Defecation in GPs/ villages could be used for some productive activity or turned into parks.

IEC/BCC PLAN FOR SUSTAINED SANITATION

One of the most important activities that have to be ongoing after the district attains ODF status are the IEC/BCC activities. The focus should be on

  • (a) Mass and Digital Media Campaign
  • (b) Community Mobilisation Approaches
  • (c) Inter Personal Communication
  • (d) Entertainment
One of the most important activities that have to be ongoing after the district attains ODF status is the IEC/BCC activities that were undertaken by the District Administration. The key interventions that should be continued are as follows:

MASS/DIGITAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN

The District Administration need not create any new mass media tools. They can use the tools created by the State SBM or download a large number of topical TV/ Radio spots from the link (tinyurl.com/sbmiec and tinyurl.com/sbmiec2).

What the District Administration needs to focus on is to create a strong social media IEC/BCC campaign through website Facebook/ Twitter/ Instagram, They can develop unique mobisodes (short AV Clips) and highlight success stories of innovative approaches undertaken by districts to prevent slip backs and create a buzz around safe sanitation interventions.

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MASS/DIGITAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN

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Key Focus
  • Broadcast existing sanitation audio-video spots and advertisements on local TV stations, cable networks, and local radio stations.
  • Get the local media groups to write on sanitation related issues/ success stories.
  • Create a separate SBM content page in the district website/ SBM Facebook profile/ Twitter account, etc
  • Develop interesting mobisodes (highlighting key issues, post ODF achievements / success stories, etc.
  • Create and strengthen WhatsApp groups at GP levels to share updates of progress and achievements to create a sense of pride and achievement
  • Explore possibilities of partnership with media groups at the district level to highlight safe sanitation approaches.

SOCIAL AND COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION

The SBM advocates total participation of the community in the ODF drive and stresses the importance of undertaking community approaches to sanitation. This includes reaching out to the community by organising sanitation events, celebration of sanitation weeks and involving the community in monitoring and evaluation of SBM interventions. These efforts should continue during the ODF plus drive.

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SOCIAL AND COMMUNITY MOBILIZATION

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Key Focus
  • Celebrate the ODF status by organising a ‘Walk of Pride’ in each and every GP of the district every month.
  • Continue to engage and raise awareness on sanitation through social networks that exist in the villages ( youth groups, community leaders, school teachers, children, child cabinets, health workers, faith leaders, and medical practitioners)
  • Undertake Community Approaches to Sanitation by organising GP level engagements, Ratri Chaupals, etc.
  • Encourage active participation of local communities in M&E through Nigrani committees
  • Encourage localised WhatsApp groups to share updates/ videos/ content on a daily basis to keep the momentum going and creating regular information flow in the districts.

ENTERTAINMENT
EDUCATION

Entertainment education plays a key role in sustaining sanitation behaviors with particular focus on preventing slip backs into open defecation. Entertainment education tools like song and drama activities, plays, exhibitions, Melas, Swachhata Raths ( mobile SBM exhibitions) would go a long way in changing sanitation behaviors in the community.

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ENTERTAINMENT EDUCATION

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Key Focus
  • Continued IEC engagement especially among vulnerable populations with a mix of popular traditional folk media tools.
  • Activate Swachhata Raths ( mobile exhibition vans with print / audio/ video communication materials ) within the community
  • Coordinate the use of traditional media tools of the region (folk songs, puppet shows and nukkad nataks) for information dissemination.
  • Use the services of local artists, Naatak Mandalis ( dance drama troupes) and members from the third gender for song and drama performances in the villages and GPs

INTER PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

IPC activities need to continue as an important activity during the Post ODF phase. Individual counseling, community meetings, ‘chaupals’, dissemination of sanitation messages through Nigrani committees needs to be stepped up. The District Administration should also try to retain some of the trained manpower like IEC consultants, sanitation teams, Swachhagrahis to disseminate sanitation and SBM related messages

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INTER PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

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Key Focus
  • The District Administration needs to engage with volunteers and multiple social networks, including religious groups, youth and women’s clubs for IPC interventions.
  • The District Administration should try to retain some of the IEC/BCC manpower like IEC Consultants/ Zilla Swachhata Preraks at the block level and Swachhagrahis at the GP/Village level.
  • Engage continuously with the community through group meetings, ‘ rathri choupals ‘community engagements and IPC activities.
  • Mechanisms should be created to get the Nigrani Committees to identify defaulters and individually counsel them about use of toilets

MONITORING & EVALUATION

Monitoring and Evaluation is an important part of the management of any structured intervention. It helps the implementers track the progress of their intervention with respect to

  • (a) whether planned process has been followed.
  • (b) Have targeted outcomes been achieved of target outcomes.
  • (c) Does the outcomes achieved match with the final objectives.
The M&E framework in the guideline consists of four key parameters, namely
TASKS

Detail the key activities that have been planned under various activities.

RESULTS

The results the District Administration wants to achieve through the SBM intervention.

INDICATORS

Benchmarks against the success of the results can be measured and evaluated in an objective manner.

MEANS OF VERIFICATION

The tools that can be used to verify the achieved results.

MONITORING & EVALUATION

MONITORING & EVALUATION FRAMEWORK

  • Process Indicators
  • Output Indicators
  • Outcome Indicators

BOTTLENECKS AND SOLUTIONS

The Guidelines suggest strategic approaches and provides the District Administration with a road map for advocacy, mass media, social marketing, community mobilisation, IPC, entertainment education and capacity building to achieve an ODF district. But the path is not easy and the District Administration could face challenges and bottlenecks while driving these interventions.

Some of the Potential bottlenecks
the District Administration can face
are listed below:
  • Difficulty in establishing partnerships with Corporate Partners/Private sector who have no direct stake in the sanitation sector.
  • Initiating a communication needs assessment study in the district.
  • How to ensure regular supply of sanitation materials in the community during the construction phase
  • How to attain synergy between various stakeholders under SBM at the district level
  • How to create capacity building infrastructure including training materials, ToTs, coordination of training schedules and evaluations of trainings.

MONITORING & EVALUATION

POTENTIAL BOTTLENECKS & SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS

The Guidelines suggest strategic approaches and point out a route map to be adopted by the District Administration under advocacy, mass media, social marketing, community mobilisation, IPC, entertainment education and capacity building to achieve an ODF district. But the path is not easy and the District Administration could face potential challenges and bottlenecks while driving these interventions. Listed below are some perceived bottlenecks the District Administration might have to overcome under the key approaches.

  • Advocacy
  • Media Communication
  • Social Marketing
  • Social Mobilization
  • Inter Personal Comunication
  • Capacity Building